Lewy Body Dementia (LBD)

Lewy Body disease occurs when clusters of protein named Lewy body also known as alpha-synuclein, accumulates mainly over the cortex (the surface) of the brain and disrupting its normal functioning. The excess protein deposits is also associated with reduction of neurotransmitters such as dopamine.
Deficiency of dopamine is associated with Parkinson disease often people suffering from this disease also suffer from Parkinson, but it is also common for those people to develop the plaques and tangles associated with Alzheimer disease.
LBD is the second common type of dementia after Alzheimer, accounted for about 20% of dementia cases. 
LBD is often misdiagnosed as Parkinson’s or Alzheimer, and it often commonly found with Parkinson’s, Alzheimer, Vascular, and Alcohol-related dementia. 

Patients with LBD live an average of 7 years after diagnosis

Causes

LBD is not considered as genetic disease. There is no genetic evidence that members of family with a case of LBD, are at higher risk to suffer from the disease.
Age is a risk factor, and most people developing the disease are 50 years or older.

There are some suggestions that healthy life style which includes exercise, mental stimulation and health diet may reduce the risk of developing the disease, but the is correct for all dementia cases. 

Alzheimer domy opieki

Vascular Dementia

Vascular dementia is a product of a poor blood supply to the brain. The form of dementia is second most common type, after Alzheimer. The condition is more common among men and usually begins after age 70

Causes

Proper functioning of the brain cells is fully dependent on the supply of oxygen and other nutrients. When the vascular system fail to properly function due to plaque obstruction, or stroke, brain cells die and cognitive problems appear.
Narrowing of the vessels may lead to a formation of clots and eventually to a permanent or temporary blocking of the blood supply to the brain cells. 
There are various forms of vascular disease affecting the brain. 
A single large stroke can cause vascular dementia. This type of vascular dementia is called strategic infarct dementia.
A collection many unnoticeable strokes large blood vessels, classified as multi-infarct dementia.
About 20% people suffering from stroke end up developing dementia within less than one year from the time of the occurrence. 
Most common vascular dementia caused by clotting of small deep brain cells. Such dementia is called subcortical dementia (or Binswanger’s disease). This is associated with, poorly controlled hypertension and general vascular disease.
Subcortical vascular dementia is usually progressive
Vascular dementia patients are generally more aware of their cognitive conditions, and therefore tend to turn more depressed as an outcome of their awareness.

Frontotemporal Dementia

Frontotemporal dementia (frontotemporal lobar degeneration) refers to a collection of disorders that primarily affect the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. 
Malformation of protein in the brain shape into a new structure called Pick bodies (the disease is also called Pick’s disease).
The frontal lobe controls planning, and judgment, emotional behavior, languages (speaking and understanding), and certain types of movement.
The symptoms of frontotemporal dementia vary depending on the area where shrinkage took place.
Unlike AD, Frontotemporal dementia happens at relatively early age (40-75). Roughly 60 percent of people with FTLD are 45 to 64 years old.
The symptoms of the disease are often confused and misdiagnosed as psychiatric disease or AD.

Frontotemporal dementia accounts to 10%-15% of the dementia cases.

Types of Frontotemporal Disorders

  • Frontotemporal disorders are grouped into three types:
    • Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia
  • This type effects personality behavior emotion and judgment
    • Primary progressive aphasia (PPA)
  • This type effects language ability such as speaking understanding reading and writing
    • FTD movement disorder

Characterized by progressive decline in physical movement abilities such as walking, falls and lack of coordination. Somewhat similar to the symptoms of those people suffering from LBD

Causes

Genetic is probably the number one cause of the disease. Close to 50% of the cases are genetically related.

Parkinson's disease

Parkinson’s disease is a fairly common in older people. It is a degenerative neurological disorder resulting from nerve cells in the brain failing to produce enough of the chemical dopamine, which regulates movement.
Early symptoms are quite mild, affecting one side of the body and include sluggish movement, stiffness, balance problems and tremor of the body. 
Relatively small number Parkinson’s patients will eventually experience dementia as their disease progresses, and will display loss of memory and other cognitive functions.

In the developed countries, nearly 2 percent of those older than age 65 suffer from Parkinson. 

Symptoms

  • Loss of Memory
  • Loss of the ability to make decision
  • Difficulties concentrating.
  • Linguistic impairments – speaking and understanding
  • Disorientation 

Huntington Disease

Huntington’s disease (also known as Huntington’s chorea) is a rare genetic brain disorder that causes parts of the brain to degenerate. The disease is hereditary and incurable, and prevalence amongst Caucasian and generally starts to develop between the age of 30-50 with uncontrolled involuntary jerky movements. HD gradually develops into dementia.

Symptoms

  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Anger
  • Compulsive behavior 
  • Repeating questions or action over and over again

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a very rare degenerative disease. Affecting one in a million.  It is estimated that 5 to 15% of the people suffering from the disease due to genetic reasons.
The main cause of the disease is a substance named BFE, which is found in animals and in particular cattle. This substance builds up abnormal protein named Prion, and producing in the brain many wholes.

Under a microscope the brain resembles sponge .  The degeneration process of the disease is rather quick with 85% of the patients die within 1 Year

Symptoms

  • Memory loss
  • Hallucinations
  • Obsession compulsive
  • Anxiety
  • Speech impairment
  • Seizures
  • Rigid posture
  • Involuntary movement
  • Pneumonia 
Usually this is the cause of the death.

Alcohol related dementia

Alcohol related dementia is also known as Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, which produces irreversible deterioration of the brain due to poor nutrition, lacking Vitamin B1 (thiamine), and inflammation of the stomach coating. Alcohol also appears to interfere with the conversion process of the vitamin.
Thiamine is found in various foods such as grain, potatoes, and bananas.

The disease tends to strike patient at an early age than Alzheimer. The syndrome may start as early as at the age 30.  A proper diet may stop the process but may not reverse the condition of the patient. 

Symptoms

  • Short term memory
  • Apathy
  • Reduce ability to learn new skills
  • Problems with language
  • Judgment problems
  • Impairment in social or occupational functioning
  • Involuntary eye movement
  • Poor coordination and balance
  • Hallucination.